Hygieia Biological Laboratories was started in 1991 by biologist James Wallis as a research and development laboratory for the investigation of animal diseases and development of new vaccines using novel technology. The premises, located in northern California, are not open to the public. All product sales are conducted via telephone, e-mail, or facsimile and shipped via commercial carrier to customers and retailers; there are no walk-in sales at the facility. Products are only produced under strict regulatory oversight by state and federal agencies in facilities that meet or exceed current regulatory requirements. Personnel involved in vaccine manufacturing are highly trained, predominately college-educated specialists. Every lot of vaccine is tested in animals and by bench testing before being released into commercial channels. Hygieia’s emphasis on technology that promotes product safety accounts for the virtual non-existence of adverse reactions attributable to vaccines.